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What do you mean by the Special Procedures mandate for issues of the Human Rights, when established and what are its functions. How it is linked to human rights?

Holders of special procedures mandate addresses issues of human rights.

Council of Human Rights is Charter-based bodies of the UN. Procedures on Human Rights approved by it are called the special procedures of human rights.

Special procedures "is the generic name given to mechanisms to address issues of human rights approved by the Human Rights Council. Special procedures to address situations of specific countries or thematic issues in all regions of the world. Currently there are 30 thematic and country mandates 8. Council of Human Rights provides these mechanisms with personnel, logistics and research assistance to support them in fulfilling their mandates.

The mandates of special procedures "commonly called the mandate-holders special procedures to review, monitor, advise and publicly report on the situation of human rights in specific countries or territories. Special procedures is known as country mandates.
Special procedures mandates major phenomena of human rights violations around the world are known as thematic mandates. Various activities can be undertaken by special procedures, including responding to individual complaints procedures of human rights, the conduct procedures of human rights, advising procedures on technical cooperation on the rights of the human at the country level, engaging in general promotional activities of human rights.

Special procedures of human rights are either an individual or "independent expert" or a working group usually composed of five members (one from each region). The mandates of special procedures are established and defined by the resolution creating them. Holders of special procedures mandates serve in their personal capacity and do not receive salaries or any other financial compensation for their work. The independence of Special procedures mandate holders is crucial to be able to perform their duties impartially.
Among their activities, the most special procedures to receive information on specific allegations of violations of human rights and send urgent appeals or letters of allegation to governments asking for clarification. In 2008, a total of 911 communications  of human rights Special procedures were sent to governments in 118 countries by Special procedures.

The special procedures Mandate holders for Human Rights also conduct country visits to investigate the situation of human rights at national level. The Special procedures mandate holders for human rights in general send a letter to Government requesting to visit the country, and if the government accepts an invitation to visit is extended. Some countries have issues "standing invitations for Special procedures", which means they are in principle prepared to receive visits from all special procedures mandate holders of human rights. From July 2009, 66 countries issues a standing invitation to special procedures for human rights. After their visit, the special procedures mandate-holders issues a mission report containing its findings and recommendations. After their visit, the special procedures mandate-holders issues a mission report containing its findings and recommendations on human rights.
 


Since June 2006, the Human Rights Council in the process of institution building, which included a review of the system of special procedures for human rights. On June 18, 2007, following its fifth session, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution 5 / 1 entitled "Institutional Strengthening of the Organization of the United Nations Human Rights Council, which includes provisions relating to the selection of mandate holders and review of all special procedures mandates. The review was conducted in 2007 and 2008. All thematic mandates, which were examined, were expanded. Some new thematic mandates have also been established, namely on contemporary forms of slavery, violation of human rights and violation of rights of access to safe water and sanitation.
In June 2007, the Council also adopted a resolution 5 / 2, containing a code of conduct for mandate holders of special procedures. At the annual meeting of holders of special procedures mandate in June 2008, holders of special procedures mandates adopted the Manual of Special Procedures of the UN, which provides guidance on methods of work of mandate holders of special procedures . At the same meeting, they also adopted a consultative process to review internal practices and working methods by which the Code of Conduct and other relevant documents, including the Manual of Special Procedures of the United Nations are implemented to enhance the effectiveness and independence of the special procedures system as a whole and also of each mandate holder. At its 8th session, the Human Rights Council adopted a presidential statement on the terms of mandate

Name of some holders of special procedures approved by Human rights council

 



For Working Group on people of African descent : Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Linos-Alexandros Sicilianos (Greece) (since August 2009)

For Working Group on Arbitrary Detention : Special Procedures mandate holders : Mr. Mads Andenas (Norway) (since August 2009)

For Independent Expert on situation of human rights in Burundi:  Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Akich Okola (Kenya) (since July 2004) .

For  situation of human rights in Cambodia: Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Surya Prasad Subedi (Nepal)
On the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography: Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Najat M’jid Maalla (Morocco) (since May 2008)
In the field of cultural rights : Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Farida Shaheed (Pakistan) (since November 2009)
On the right to education: Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Vernor Muñoz Villalobos (Costa Rica) (since July 2004)

For Working Group on enforced or involuntary disappearances: Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Olivier de Frouville (France) (since November 2008)
On extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions : Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Maria Magdalena Sepulveda (Chile) (since May 2008)

On the right to food: : Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Olivier de Schutter (Belgium) (since May 2008)

On freedom of religion or belief : Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Asma Jahangir (Pakistan) (since July 2004)

On the situation of human rights in Haiti : Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Michel Forst (France) (since August 2008)
On the situation on human rights defenders : Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Margaret Sekaggya (Uganda) (since May 2008)
On the independence of judges and lawyers : Special Procedures mandate holders :Ms. Gabriela Carina Knaul de Albuquerque e Silva (Brazil) (June 2009)
On the human rights of migrants : Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Jorge A. Bustamante (Mexico) (since July 2005)
On the situation of human rights in Myanmar : Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Tomas Ojea Quintana (Argentina) (since May 2008)
On situation of human rights in Somalia: Special Procedures mandate holders :Mr. Shamsul Bari (Bangladesh) (since May 2008)

Holders of special procedures mandate addresses issues of human rights.


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